Parasitic diseases or the defeat of the human body by parasites, pathogenic fungi and bacteria are the second most common after respiratory infections. The main danger is that people are not always aware of the presence of such a lesion, and the characteristic signs of the disease may not appear for months, while the parasites cause irreparable damage to health. Symptoms of parasites in the body for a long time will be disguised as fatigue and minor pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.
Helminthiasis is not just a disease of “dirty hands”. Eating poorly washed fruits, raw fish (sushi) and insufficiently fried meat can cause the appearance of worms and other protozoa. Helminth eggs can be transmitted from an infected person to a healthy person through tactile contact.
The statistics of the WHO are frightening - about ¾ of the entire population of the planet are infected with various parasites. The incidence rate in adults and children with pets is 99. 9%.
It is possible to get rid of helminths with the help of drugs and folk remedies, but there are difficult cases when only surgery will help get rid of the parasites.
What human organs can be infected with parasites
There are 3 ways to get worms and helminths into the human body - through the mouth, mucous membranes and skin. Against the background of a weakened immune system, parasites multiply without hindrance in the body. Immunity is further depleted, secondary immunodeficiency develops, a general allergy in the body manifests itself, and resistance to various types of infections decreases. Acute pathologies evolve into chronic pathologies, follow a severe course.
The preferred habitat of the parasites are all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Of the 300 varieties of parasitic diseases, 70% are intestinal forms. Types of extraintestinal helminthiasis affect:
- skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue;
- liver; muscle tissue
- heart tissue; eyeball
- joint capsules.
The time when the first symptoms of a lesion appear depends on the type of parasites, the number, the location of their localization, as well as the current state of human health.
The main symptoms of parasites in the body are similar for all types of helminthic infestations:
- the appetite disappears;
- salivation increases;
- diarrhea alternating with constipation;
- attacks of nausea and vomiting;
- trouble sleeping.
Grinding of teeth during sleep can indicate the existence of worms in a child's body.
The main symptoms of helminthiasis are general malaise, increased irritability, mild dizziness, weight loss and the development of iron deficiency anemia. In the event of allergic reactions (in 70% of cases), it is the parasitic lesions which are not taken into account and which are not treated in a timely manner.
The main types of parasites and the distinctive symptoms of their presence
Currently, 70 types of parasites have been identified that can live inside humans. They are divided into the following sub-groups:
- round verses (verses);
- tapeworms (tapeworms);
- subcutaneous helminths;
- moat (moat);
- tissue parasites;
- protozoa protozoa.
Symptoms caused by different types of pests may differ. To understand whether a person's body is affected or not, let's consider some of the most common cases.
Enterobius vermicularis or pinworms are roundworms. They feed on blood and intestinal contents. These 0. 5-1 cm white grubs cause a common helminthiasis - enterobiosis. According to statistics, the total share of this disease in all lesions is 65%, of which 90% are children.
Enterobiosis is contagious and spreads from person to person. The main route of entry of parasites into the body is by swallowing eggs. The life cycle is 4 weeks - during this time, both males and females develop from the eggs, which exit through the anus and lay eggs on the surrounding skin and in the perineum. Moving and laying eggs causes a strong burning sensation of the skin.
Pinworms are very difficult to treat because the eggs don't just reach the skin. The eggs of the parasites fall on the bed sheets, shake themselves on the floor and contaminate household items and toys.
It is difficult to determine the presence of these parasites in the body, but the signs and symptoms of their presence have their own characteristics:
- frequent urge to urinate, bedwetting;
- bloating and pain in the lower abdomen, often on the right side;
- loss of appetite;
- general muscle weakness;
- Female pinworms and egg clutches are visually found in the folds of the anus.
With a small number of colonies, assay-based diagnostics can be false negative. In order to identify the parasites, a triple analysis of feces and scratching is performed, which is repeated after a few days. In rare cases, the doctor may order a blood test with an increased white blood cell count.
Toxocars - symptoms and treatment of varieties of toxocariasis
Refers to a subgroup of nematodes that enter the body after contact with dogs, cats or soil. Toxocars are not passed from person to person, but can be passed from the mother to the fetus in utero, or reach the infant with milk during breastfeeding. Parasitic infestation of this species often occurs in the fall or spring.
The symptoms of toxocariasis depend on the location of the individual.
This type of lesion is detected when parasites take up residence in internal organs: a person's liver, kidney, pancreas, brain or heart. In the vast majority of cases, coaches settle in the patient's lungs. The following clinical picture is often observed:
- fever, chills, fever;
- the liver is thickened, the spleen is enlarged;
- the lymph nodes increase slightly, are painful on palpation, and separate from surrounding tissue;
- dry cough with wet wheezing, mainly at night;
- difficulty breathing and shortness of breath;
- Too frequent bronchitis and bronchopneumonia.
Failure to treat helminths of this form can be fatal. Parasites in the heart can cause death.
Pathology occurs when parasites enter the central nervous system. Symptoms of the presence of parasites in the human body:
- children become hyperactive, fail neuropsychological tests and are developmentally delayed;
- adults complain that it is difficult for them to read and cannot explain why;
- memory is degrading;
- all kinds of neurological disorders are manifested.
If tosokars remain in the brain, convulsions and fits, paresis and paralysis of the limbs are possible.
Symptoms will appear as localized hives, eczema, or papular rashes that appear when toxocard larvae migrate. Patients complain of intolerable itching and the affected areas, in addition to the rashes and blisters, swell and redden a lot. Laxity of the skin appears around the areas.
A lesion in which the larvae of the parasite colonize the eyeball. Their migration is clearly visible even to the naked eye. Only one eye is affected. In most cases, only one parasite is present. However, there are other signs of the presence of parasites:
- inflammation of the choroid;
- purulent inflammation of vitreous tissue;
- children develop strabismus;
- In the exudate of the eyeball, there may be formations in the form of "snowballs".
The main diagnostic technique for any form of toxocariasis is history, immunological tests and a detailed blood test. Stool tests are not done because these parasites do not live in the intestines. With adequate medication, the prognosis for recovery is favorable.
This parasite enters the human body through the consumption of raw fish or caviar. The disease is called diphyllobothriasis and does not spread from person to person.
Large tapeworm can only exist in the small intestine. There are specific symptoms of its presence, which develop in the following order:
- nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting;
- feverish conditions;
- decreased or increased appetite;
- constipation alternating with diarrhea;
- gradual increase in symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia;
- intestinal obstruction caused by blockage of the intestinal lumen by an overgrown helminth, as well as a violation of superficial and deep sensitivity;
- unsteady, crawling gait under the skin;
- Parasite particles may be present in the stool.
The diagnosis of the presence of parasites is carried out based on the results of blood tests and coproovoscopy.
This tapeworm can reach 7-10 meters in length. The parasite enters the human body as larvae or eggs contained in undercooked or raw infected bovine meat. The disease is called teniarinchosis; adults are more sensitive to it.
Signs of parasites in the human body with tapeworm appear sequentially:
- there is a persistent feeling of constant hunger, false bulimia;
- there is a decrease in appetite, sometimes to complete absence;
- pain in the abdomen increases, which may be of different localization, the iliac region on the right hurts more;
- persistent severe gas and recurrent diarrhea;
- inflammation of the tongue develops;
- debilitated people may have trouble sleeping, fainting, convulsions.
It is quite easy to identify and check the defeat of the bovine tapeworm, its individual segments - proglottids, crawl out of the anus without an act of defecation, especially often at night.
The simplest and most effective diagnostic method is scraping and analysis of feces for the contents of proglottid eggs. The prognosis for treatment is favorable.
Echinococcus belongs to the class of tapeworms. The main source is stray dogs, wolves, jackals, foxes, which feed on carrion infected with echinococcus. It is possible to become infected with parasites from a domestic dog if it has come into contact with stray parents or the feces of infected animals.
Human infection occurs when parasite larvae are swallowed, most often with contaminated water. It is possible that the eggs are inhaled with a gust of wind and stick to the mucous membranes of the nose or throat, and when the sputum is swallowed and enters the digestive tract.
The larva of the parasite, which entered the intestine, sinks into the bloodstream and with the venous blood flow reaches the liver, where it is attached. If fixation does not occur, the echinococcus can affect the lungs or other organs. Contrary to popular belief, these parasites do not live in human muscles.
Clinging to the tissues of the organs, the larva begins to develop and forms a cyst. In case of death, suppuration of the cyst occurs. When a person is infected with a large number of larvae, many living and dead echinococcal cysts are formed.
Symptoms of the presence of this type of parasites do not appear for a long time, but as the cyst grows in the liver, the following symptoms appear:
- violation of stool, frequent vomiting, pain in the solar plexus;
- nodules are felt in the liver;
- in case of compression of the cysts, jaundice develops, accompanied by characteristic symptoms, to which very severe itching of the skin attaches;
- when a purulent cyst is opened, severe pain, allergic reactions, up to anaphylactic shock occur.
If the parasite is attached to the lungs, shortness of breath develops, weakness in breathing, chest pain, and cough with bleeding. A breakthrough of a cyst in the pleural area is fatal. With a breakthrough in the bronchi, suffocation, blue skin and severe allergic reactions develop.
The diagnosis is clarified by serological blood test and confirmation by ultrasound. Echinococcosis can only be treated surgically! Specific antiparasitic drug therapy is carried out only in cases of massive infection. It is unnecessary to drink alcohol or take other folk remedies for these parasites.
It is quite easy to become a carrier of these parasites - human infection occurs with cysts from cats, dogs and rodents. Once in the body, the parasites are localized not only in the liver, but also in the large and small intestines. Giardiasis affects children and adults with weakened immunity and low stomach acidity.
The disease is characterized by an undulating course with progressive neurological and allergic symptoms:
- Painful cramps in the right side, especially after eating fatty foods;
- diarrhea alternating with constipation;
- dry and bitter mouth;
- with a normal level of hemoglobin in the blood, there is paleness of the skin, especially the nose "turns white";
- hair is falling out;
- cracks and bumps on the lips appear;
- the skin of the palms and feet peels off, rashes appear on the skin;
- there are bouts of suffocating cough;
- enlarged liver, spleen and lymph nodes;
- develops severe apathy and general weakness.
Feces and duodenal contents are examined to clarify the diagnosis.
When detecting signs of parasites, you should not self-medicate, you should contact an infectious disease specialist. Only a doctor will be able to accurately diagnose and prescribe adequate complex treatment.